On June 25, 2021 in TransUnion L.L.C. v. Ramirez, 2021 WL 2599472 (U.S. June 25, 2021) the Supreme Court issued a 5-4 decision addressing whether consumers suffered concrete harm due to violations of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), including inaccurate credit reports, that met the requirement for Article III standing. Ramirez follows up on the Court’s 2016 decision in Spokeo, Inc. v. Robins, 136 S. Ct. 1540 (2016), which also addressed FCRA violations. These decisions control standing in federal court generally.

This webpage provides resources to consumer attorneys and will be updated as more materials become available. Please email with any submissions of relevant materials.

Sample Ramirez Briefing

  • Maddox v. The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Co., 997 F.3d 436 (2d Cir. 2021) (Supplemental Ramirez Briefing). Class action seeking penalties authorized by state statute for untimely filing mortgage loan satisfactions of record. Includes argument of analogue to common law defamation of title.
  • TeWinkle v. Capital One, N.A., Case No. 20-2049 (2d Cir. 2021) (Supplemental Ramirez Briefing). Claim under ECOA. Includes argument of analogue to common law duty of good faith and fair dealing in contracts.

Articles Discussing Case Development

Additional Resources

Standing Discussions found in NCLC Treatises (Subscription Required)

Links are to the existing sections of books in NCLC’s Consumer Law Practice Series. NCLC treatises discussing standing. Discussions of Ramirez and cases interpreting Ramirez will be added.

The treatises in the Consumer Law Practice Series cover every facet of consumer law, and are available in print and continuously updated digital format. Learn more at